The model was first studied in 1976 and studies conducted in the 1990s showed that the introduction of such a model could generate 10% savings over the duration of the project and 7% on costs.  The wider adoption of the ECI was a recommendation of the 1994 Latham Report on systemic deficiencies in the UK construction industry; The practice became increasingly popular in the early 2000s.    Initially, ICE`s work tended to be unpaid, but this proved unsatisfactory for contractors who felt they were devaluing their contributions and, until 2005, most ICE work was on a remunerated basis.  This also helped to avoid losses for contractors in cases where projects were not moved to construction, with customers facing compensation claims from contractors under unpaid ECI contracts in these cases.  In most construction input lists, there will be a design input element, and custom CSPS generally make the contractor responsible for such design advice. As in the case of a Memorandum of Understanding, a declaration of intent, if the parties wish it to be a legally binding contract, contains a specific provision stipulating that it must be immediately legally binding and that the key elements of the agreement (consideration, capacity and possible legal formalities) must be included in the document. For there to be a legally binding treaty, there must be more than just an agreement.